Tag Archives: vegetables

The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

July 22, 2017

The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

Dog days of summer are here. Tomatoes are ripening, zucchinis are looking like footballs and aphids are blanketing the vegetables and flowers. With no rain to help wash the pests off, what’s a gardener to do?

In order to grow plants organically, the first step is to identify the pest that is eating your plant and understand its life cycle.three-bugs-smwp_20170701_004

See chard leaf photo attached. The good – the yellow ladybug eggs. The bad – the white leafminor eggs. The ugly – the black aphids and aphid eggs.

There are many beneficial insects, such as ladybugs and parasitic wasps, that feed on pests. Ladybug eggs will hatch and can eliminate a patch of aphids in no time. It is important to learn what both the eggs and the larvae of these friendly predators look like so that you don’t accidentally kill them.

Aphids are one of the most common pests we find. They come in many colors and attack a huge variety of plants. Aphids are small, soft bodied insects that suck the juices out of stems, leaves and buds. They can reproduce without mating and give birth to live aphids that do not have to pupate. As long as the temperatures are warm enough, they will keep breeding and feeding. They secrete a sticky residue called honeydew that ants love so much that they will protect aphids from predators.

Sat, Aug 5, 10-12, Work Party
Sun, Aug 20, 2-4, Work Party
Sat, Sep 2, 10-12, Work Party
Sun, Sep 17, 2-4, Work Party
Plus Thursdays 10-12, Food Bank

Another common pest on Swiss chard, beets, spinach and sorrel are the beet and spinach leafminers. Leafminer flies land on the undersides of their preferred plants and deposit tiny pale eggs. The eggs hatch and the larvae mine into the leaf tissue, creating “tunnels.” When the tunnels run into each other, the leaf tissue turns brown and dies. The larvae drop to the ground, pupate and begin another generation of flying adults looking for a place to lay eggs.

Aphids and leafminers can do a lot of damage, but they usually don’t kill plants. Leafminers overwinter in the soil, so I recommend you rotate crops and avoid growing chard and beets in the same bed every year.

sue-and-food-bank-bed-wp_20160509_001You can tent your plants with fabric (floating row cover) that lets through light, air and rain to help prevent flying insects from landing on plants. Check weekly for eggs and larvae as a few will manage to get into the tent. If eggs hatch and you catch the larvae early, you can lessen the damage by smashing them or dislodge them with a strong spray of the hose. Or, use a soft brush to knock off aphids, larvae or eggs. Harvest damaged leaves, cut away the damaged parts, and eat the rest. More food for you and less for the pest!

UC Davis Integrated Pest Management has great photos and information about many insects, good and bad.

Aphids: http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn7404.html
Leafminers: http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/GARDEN/VEGES/PESTS/vegleafminers.html
Ladybugs: http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/NE/convergent_lady_beetle.html
Parasitic wasps: http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/NE/lysiphlebus_testaceipes.html

Sue Hartman

Harvest Highlights – Part I – Vegetables

November 30, 2016

The bounty from our seven vegetable gardens was spectacular and, beginning mid-May and 161121-sm-sues-lettuce-wp_20161121_16_18_27_proending mid-November, we donated over 300 pounds of produce to the University District Food Bank. Thanks so much to experienced gardeners Sue Hartman and Nancy Helm, sluggers in the batting lineup with Team Mother Nature.

Nancy filled our spare garden bed with organic seed potato. With surplus compost, she periodically hilled up the potato rows. What a strategy! The potato harvest was huge and easy to dig up. Nancy was in awe of Sue’s beautiful greens: “Now I know that floating row cover is worth the effort, continuous harvest and cleanup helps prevent disease, and crowding plants is bad.”

tomato-wilt-wp_20160721_001Indeed, Sue’s chard, kale, collards, lemon cukes, zucchini and tomatoes belonged in an art gallery. However, there was a bit of ugly. We came face to face with Spotted Wilt Virus this summer. (photo) Sue thought it would be easier to deal with determinant* tomatoes in cages (versus trellis). Indeterminate tomatoes do not appear to be susceptible to this disease and are less prone to splitting, so next year she will grow a row of indeterminate tomatoes instead. She also grew powdery mildew resistant summer squash but it did not sufficiently resist. We will try a milk spray early next year to keep the mildew at bay.

161121-sm-celeriac-harvest-wp_20161121_16_24_34_proWe spoke to the produce manager at the University food bank to find out what their clients snatch up fast. In response, we have made more room for collards. We now drop off produce later in the week; early in the week, the food bank garners unsold produce from the weekend farmer’s market events.

I learned that tomatillo plants could sprout new plants from a branch lying on the ground. (This is ‘layering’. Blackberry plants are quite skilled at this type of propagation.) And, when homegrown radishes are too hot to eat fresh, they are mild and delectable when roasted. Early on, I was disgusted with the low germination rate of the French marigolds but I had to eat my words because it only took two plants to fill up a big space full of bee-friendly small flowers. (photo)!

We used less than one CCF (748 gallons) of City water this year. The rest of our water needs, bombus-small-on-marigold-wp_20161028_001about 2,500 gallons, came from rain stored in the cisterns. We added only organic approved inputs including cardboard, donated compost and wood chips, burlap bags, agricultural lime, some blood meal, and fish fertilizer.

Gardeners note! Sue donated well-labeled seeds and they are in the shed for your use!

We welcome Mitch as our new gardener and we warmly bid farewell to Ryan who is moving out of Washington.

Ruth

* Determinant – plant stops growing when fruit sets on the top bud. Indeterminate – plant will grow and produce until it gets cold